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Basic Parts of Gravity Dam

Different parts & terminologies of Dams:-

1.Crest: The top of the dam structure. These may in some cases be used for providing a roadway or walkway over the dam.
2.Parapet walls: Low Protective walls on either side of the roadwayor walkway on the crest.
3.Heel: Portion of structure in contact with ground or river-bed atupstream side.
4.Toe: Portion of structure in contact with ground or river-bed atdownstream side.
5.Spillway: It is the arrangement made (kind of passage) near the top of structure for the passage of surplus/ excessive water from thereservoir.
6.Abutments: The valley slopes on either side of the dam wall to which the left & right end of dam are fixed to.
7.Gallery: Level or gently sloping tunnel like passage (small room like space) at transverse or longitudinal within the dam with drain on floorfor seepage water. These are generally provided for having space for drilling grout holes and drainage holes. These may also be used toaccommodate the instrumentationfor studying the performance of dam.
8.Sluice way: Opening in the structure near the base, provided to clear the silt accumulation in thereservoir.
9.Free board: The space between the highest level of water in the reservoir and the top of the structure.
10.Dead Storage level: Level of permanent storage below which the water will not be withdrawn.
11.Diversion Tunnel: Tunnel constructed to divert or change thedirection of water to bypass the dam construction site. The hydraulicstructures are built while the river flows through the diversion tunnel.